Policy Perspectives Archives - Economic Research Forum (ERF)

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ERF’s Policy Perspectives present policy-relevant research in a succinct, concise manner.

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Policy Perspectives

The Effects of Policy Reforms on Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditures: Evidence from Turkey

Eleftherios Giovanis and Oznur Ozdamar

• Out-of-pocket payments on health care constitute a substantial portion of the household expenditure in ... read more



Subsidizing Inequality: Policy and Higher Education in the Middle East and North Africa

Caroline Krafft and Halimat Alawode

This policy perspective demonstrates that attainment of higher education is notably unequal in Egypt and ... read more


The Case for Improving Water Efficiency in MENA Countries

Marc Jeuland

A range of contemporary pressures – rising populations, economic development, and climate change – are ... read more


Options for Climate Change Policy in MENA Countries after Paris

Mustafa Hussein Babiker

Many economies in the MENA region are vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change ... read more


Lessons and Pitfalls of Transitions to Democracy

Melani Cammett

When elites agree to compromise during regime transitions, democratization is more likely to succeed. Human ... read more


Structural Transformation and Industrial Policy

Izak Atiyas

How much structural transformation has taken place in Euromed countries over the past few decades? ... read more


Development Prospects for North Africa

Ahmed Galal and Khalid Sekkat

This edition of Policy Perspective explains why the North African region has been successful in ... read more


Equality for All? Egypt’s Free Public Higher Education Policy Breeds Inequality of Opportunity

Ragui Assaad

In this edition of Policy Perspective, Research Fellow Ragui Assaad writes that the common MENA ... read more


Egypt Post January 2011: An Economic Perspective

Ahmed Galal

This paper offers a road map for future economic development in Egypt post-January 25th Revolution. ... read more


Arab Passenger Airlines Framework and Performance: Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and UAE

Khalid Sekkat

This policy perspective is the result of an ambitious research to study the impacts of ... read more


The Impact of Non-Tariff Measures: The Experience of MENA Countries

Ahmed Ghoneim and Nicolas Péridy

This policy perspective examines why the role of NTMs in explaining trade performance has been ... read more


Inequality and Polarization in the Arab World

Sami Bibi , AbdelRahmen El Lahga and Jean-Yves Duclos

This policy perspective examines why levels, changes and determinants of inequality are at the heart ... read more


Can Labor Mobility Spark Employment in Tunisia?

Anda David and Mohamed Ali Marouani

While most studies focus on host countries, empirical analysis on sending countries is often lacking. ... read more


The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment to Arab Countries

Pierre-Guillaume Méon and Khalid Sekkat

This policy perspective examines the issue of attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) to the Arab ... read more


The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment in Arab Countries

Pierre-Guillaume Méon and Khalid Sekkat

Although the growth of per capita real income in the Arab world has markedly improved ... read more