Subsidizing Inequality: Policy and Higher Education in the Middle East and North Africa - Economic Research Forum (ERF)

This policy perspective demonstrates that attainment of higher education is notably unequal in Egypt and Tunisia, but less so in Jordan. In all three countries family socioeconomic characteristics are the primary driver of inequality, even after accounting for test scores. Particularly in Egypt and Tunisia, where higher education is free of charge, public spending on higher education is regressive. Thus, a theoretically meritocratic and equitable system perpetuates inequality.


Caroline Krafft

Assistant Professor of economics at St. Catherine University

Halimat Alawode



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