In a nutshell
- Demographic pressures on Egypt’s labor supply have decreased.
- The “youth bulge” generation are young adults now, their labor market entry complete, while the “echo” of the youth bulge is school-aged.
- Fertility, which had declined in Egypt and then risen, has once again fallen. The total fertility rate (births per woman), which was 3.5 in 2012-2014, fell to 3.1 in 2018.
- Labor force participation rates declined from 51% in 2012 to 48% in 2018.
- Employment rates declined from 47% to 44% over 2012 to 2018.
- Standard unemployment rates remained stable, but discouraged unemployment increased in 2018.
The study of labor market behaviors and dynamics is a central part of Egypt's development
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