Working Papers Archives - Economic Research Forum (ERF)

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ERF’s Working Papers Series disseminates work in progress in order to promote constructive debate and peer review.

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Working Papers

Private Banking and Crony Capitalism in Egypt

Ishac Diwan and Marc Schiffbauer

In Egypt, the bulk of bank loans during 2003-2010 went to politically connected firms. At ... read more


National Oil Companies in the Middle East and North Africa: Remaining Relevant in a Changing World

Jenik Radon and Sarah Logan

This paper applies a practitioner’s analytical perspective to assessing the contractual arrangements governing oil and ... read more


Investment Climate and Firms’ Exports in Egypt: When Politics Matter

Nora Aboushady and Chahir Zaki

The objective of this paper is to explore the nexus between exports performance and components ... read more




Is There an Arab Variety of Capitalism?

Steffen Hertog

This paper argues that capitalism in Arab low- to mid-income countries is organized in a ... read more


Correlates of Kin Marriage in Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia

Rania Salem and Sarah Shah

Although kin marriage is widely practiced in the MENA, the rationales that are thought to ... read more


Crony Interlockers and The Centrality of Banks: The Network of Moroccan Listed Companies

Mohamed Oubenal

In this paper, we study crony capitalism through the lens of Moroccan listed companies and ... read more


Out of Pocket Health Expenditure and Household Budget: Evidence from Arab Countries

Reham Rizk and Hala Abou-Ali

This paper assesses the prevalence of out-of-pocket catastrophic health expenditure and pinpoints the factors associated ... read more



Moroccan Cronyism: Facts, Mechanisms and Impact

Mohammed Said Saadi

The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on Moroccan cronyism by studying ... read more




The Link between Health Condition Costs and Standard of Living: A Structural Equation Modelling

Oznur Ozdamar and Eleftherios Giovanis

This study employs a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to explore the health related costs using ... read more


I’ve Got the Power: Mapping Connections between Lebanon’s Banking Sector and the Ruling Class

Jad Chaaban

This paper explores the extent to which local commercial banks in Lebanon are linked to ... read more