This project aims to explore various topics including the linkages between health status, living conditions, disability, chronic illnesses, out–‐of–‐pocket expenditures (OOPEs), health insurance schemes and productivity in terms of wage level and hours worked or hours absent from work and the role of private and non–‐governmental health sectors. Moreover, the productivity loss because due to illness, disability and health problems is calculated. It explores two topics: the relationship between health expenditures, disability and chronic illness, productivity, health insurance programs and their impact on economic growth defined as the standard of livings (SoL) in households in Turkey. Moreover it expands the analysis by employing structural equation modelling (SEM) and Bayesian Networks (BN) accounting for possible selection problem, where people might choose for health coverage or not as well as, the proposed frameworks account for possible reverse causality between SoL and OOPEs and capture the complex links among them. Additionally the health reforms in Turkey and their impact on health insurance programs, disability costs, SoL is analysed. Also a Generalised Ordered Logit Latent Class model will be applied in order to explore the heterogeneous effects of disability and theirs costs on SoL. Also, the effects of OOPEs and poor health on productivity (wages, whether an individual is able to work or not and hours worked or lost from work) and the associated productivity costs will be examined.
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