Automobile emissions in Greater Cairo are considered the main source of local air pollution. This chapter examines transport mode choices and tries to evaluate the impact of traffic regulation on reducing suspended particulate matter (PM10). The empirical analysis is supported first by a demand analysis that builds upon household level data collected in Greater Cairo. Results show that most transportation modes are in fact complementary at the household level. Second, the chapter analyzes the pattern of PM10 emissions from 2002 to 2008 using data from monitoring stations in Greater Cairo. A fixed effect emission model is estimated, relating PM10 concentration to motor vehicle data, seasonal differences, peak hours and implementation of Egyptian policies regarding atmospheric pollution. Estimation results reveal a limited but significant impact of environmental policies on ambient PM10 concentration, although the implementation of some measures remain slower than expected in order to cope with the rapid increase of traffic.
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