Beware of the Echo: The Impending Return of Demographic Pressures in Egypt - Economic Research Forum (ERF)

For many years, Egypt experienced substantial demographic pressures on its education system and labor market.

These pressures have eased somewhat in recent years as fertility rates fell, but, as this policy perspective shows, the respite was only temporary and demographic pressures are now resuming in earnest. Births are increasing due to the changing age structure of the population and an increase in fertility rates.

This Policy Perspective discusses potential reasons for these increasing demographic pressures, with a focus on the growing young adult population, a reversal in the trend of increasing age at marriage, trends in contraceptive use and family planning, and reduced economic opportunities for women.

Egypt must prepare for the rising demographic tide and its inevitable pressure on the education system, food supplies, and labor and housing markets. Additionally, the reasons for rising demographic pressures must be assessed, and long-term strategies to reduce them must be implemented.


Caroline Krafft

Assistant Professor of economics at St. Catherine University

Research Fellows

Ragui Assaad

Professor of Planning and Public Affairs, University of Minnesota



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