This paper examines the relationship between internal, international, and return migration in Egypt. Using the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS), this paper documents the evolution and patterns of internal migration over time. We examine patterns and trends of international and return migration, as well as the characteristics of international and return migrants. We then investigate the relationship between internal and international migration. We find evidence that internal migration has been rather low in Egypt. However, international migration rates have been rather high and prominent across all educational groups. Suggestive evidence indicates that individuals tend to engage in one type of migration only and that few engage in both internal and international migration.
The study of labor market behaviors and dynamics is a central part of Egypt's development
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