The aim of this paper is to examine the factors affecting households’ choices of primary cooking fuels in Sudan and to indicate the likely associated side effects and the relevant policies to mitigate them. The method of investigation applied graphical, contingency tabulation and discrete choice analyses to data drawn from the recently conducted Household Health Survey. The results show that traditional solid biomass dominates the fuel-portfolio with two third of the population using smokier fuels and that deforestation and health risks, especially among small children, are the key associated externalities. It is also found that, asset poverty, low educational achievement, and female headship of households are important factors retarding the adoption of clean fuels. Other household’s demographic characteristics as well as status and location of the dwelling unit also robustly influence fuel choices. Policymakers need to account for these factors in the design of action plans aiming to scale up access to clean and green fuels. The findings imply that taxing smokier fuels might not be equitable; however, a tax on selected biomass fuels and other measures could be administered to regulate biomass consumption, increase its production and improve the efficiency of its utilization with reduced risks. In addition, policies aiming at raising income and improving education would smooth the transition to modern fuels.
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