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ERF’s Policy Briefs provide advice and best practice to stakeholders on the basis of policy relevant research.

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Policy Briefs

Currency-Plus-Commodity Basket: A Proposal for a New Exchange Rate Arrangement for Gulf Oil-Exporting Countries

Jeffrey A. Frankel

In a nutshell • Oil-exporting countries have experienced huge swings in the dollar price of oil ... read more

The Political Realities of Economic Reform in the Gulf Monarchies

Michael Herb

In a nutshell • Economic diversification in the Gulf Cooperation Council monarchies requires labor market reforms. • ... read more

Egypt Must Strengthen Budget Institutions to Curb Mounting Budget Deficit

Mohamed Zaky

In a nutshell • Since the January 2011 popular revolution, the budget deficit in Egypt has ... read more

Mechanization to Drive A Process for Fertilizer Subsidy Reform in Egypt

Shinan N. Kassam and Boubaker Dhehibi

In a nutshell Current modalities for the distribution of subsidized fertilizer, together with national campaigns for ... read more

The US Fracking Boom, Oil Prices and Policy Options for Arab Oil Producers

Romesh Vaitilingam

In a Nutshell In the absence of the US fracking boom, the global price of crude ... read more

The Impact of Emigration on MENA Labor Markets

Anda David and Mohamed Ali Marouani

In a Nutshell The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has seen large volumes of ... read more

Labor Market Regulations: Job Security versus Labor Flexibility

Jackline Wahba

In a nutshell Labor laws aim to protect workers and increase labor market efficiency. However, over-protective labor ... read more

Are Export Sanctions Effective?

Jamal Ibrahim Haidar

In a nutshell Different countries impose export sanctions. Whether these sanctions are effective depends on their goal. ... read more

Low Social and Political Returns to Education in the Arab World

Ishac Diwan

In a nutshell Arab societies urgently need to start looking at how to improve education systems, ... read more

School Based Management: An Approach to Improve Learning Outcomes in Egypt

Engi Gamal Eldin

In a nutshell Egypt has the worst basic education system worldwide. Egypt’s decentralization reforms were more rhetoric ... read more

Tackling Poverty and Poor Health in Turkish Widowed Households State Benefits Work

Oznur Ozdamar and Eleftherios Giovanis

In a nutshell Single mother widowed households in Turkey that receive survivor benefits are more likely ... read more

Boosting World Trade in Tunisia and Egypt by Cutting Non-Tariff Barriers Better Imports for Better Exports

Zouhour Karray

In a nutshell Egypt and Tunisia have embraced trade liberalization which has helped them establish a ... read more

Employment and Rates of Return to Education in Arab Countries Gender and Public Sector Perspectives

Zafiris Tzannatos

In a nutshell  Two interconnected challenges for the Arab region are how to increase the low ... read more

Reducing Air Pollution in Cairo: Raise User Costs and Invest In Public Transit

Alban Thomas

In a nutshell Vehicle exhaust fumes are a major cause of air pollution in developing world ... read more

Trade Liberalization in Egypt: Let the Informal Labor Market Take the Strain

Abeer Elshennawy

In a nutshell Egypt should embark on trade liberalization as it currently has maintains relatively high ... read more