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Blog & News

Egypt: Youth Essay Competition

To engage youth in finding innovative solutions to Youth Employment in Egypt, the Economic Research Forum and the World Bank are pleased to announce the first Youth Essay Competition. ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Informalization Dynamics and Gains: Why Want a Job Contract?

Ahmed Elsayed and Jackline Wahba

This paper examines the dynamics of informality and the extent to which informal workers (without job contracts) transit to formal employment (with job contracts) and whether this transition has changed ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Labor Market Dynamics and Youth Unemployment in the Middle East and North Africa: Evidence From Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia

Ragui Assaad and Caroline Krafft

Abstract Although it is well-established in the literature that unemployment is a labor market insertion problem in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the dynamics driving youth unemployment ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Job Quality Among the Non-Wage Workers in the Agriculture and Non-Agricultural Sectors in Egypt

Rania Roushdy and Ragui Assaad

Abstract It is quite challenging to operationalize the notion of job quality for wage and salary employment, and even more challenging to devise a measure of job quality for non-wage workers. This paper ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Is There an Informal Employment Wage Penalty in Egypt?

Aysit Tansel, Halil Ibrahim Keskin and Zeynel Abidin Ozdemir

This paper considers the private sector wage earners in Egypt and examines their wage distribution during 1998-2012 using the Egyptian Labor Market Panel Survey. We first estimate Mincer wage equations ... read more


Events
Workshops/Seminars

The Economics of Informality in The ERF Region

The recent Arab Awakening is seen by many analysts to partially reflect economic exclusion. One form of exclusion is informality of both workers and firms. Workers in the informal sector ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Flexible Labor Regulations and Informality in Egypt

Jackline Wahba and Ragui Assaad

Do flexible labor market regulations reduce informal employment? This paper examines the effects of changes in labor regulations on the incidence of formal employment. Using the case of Egypt, we ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Informality and Poverty: A Causality Dilemma with Application to Egypt

Hanan Nazier and Racha Ramadan

This paper analyzed the inverse causality between informality and poverty in Egypt, in addition to the impact of different individual and socio demographic factors affecting both of them. Using the ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Determinant of Transitions Across Formal/Informal Sectors in Egypt

Aysit Tansel and Zeynel Abidin Ozdemir

Informality is a salient feature of labor market in Egypt as it is the case with many developing countries. This is the first study of the determinants of worker transitions ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

The Political Economy of Public Sector Employment in Resource Dependent Countries

Omer Ali and Ibrahim Elbadawi

In this paper, we propose a political economic explanation for the well documented difference in labor market institutions between high natural resource per capita countries and those that are natural ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Labor Mobility across the Formal/Informal Divide in Turkey: Evidence from Individual Level Data

Aysit Tansel and Elif Oznur Kan

Informality has long been a salient phenomenon in developing country labor markets, thus has been addressed in several theoretical and empirical research. Turkey, given its economic and demographic dynamics, provides ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Agricultural Transformation and Labor Mobility During the ARIP Period in Turkey: Evidence from Micro-Data, 2000-2002

Hüseyin Ikizler and Insan Tunali

This paper analyses the transition dynamics in and out of agricultural and non-agricultural employment in the Turkish labor market during ARIP period. A multinomial logit model is used to determine ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Duration to Coverage: Dynamics of Access to Social Security in the Egyptian Labor Market in the 1998-2012 Period

Rania Roushdy and Irène Selwaness

This paper investigates the dynamics of having access to social insurance (SI) coverage on the Egyptian labor market among wage workers throughout 1998 to 2012. Using three rich nationally representative ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Micro and Small Household Enterprises in Egypt: Potential for Growth and Employment Generation

Ali Rashed and Maia Sieverding

Micro and small enterprises (MSEs) comprise an important sector of the Egyptian economy and account for a substantial portion of employment outside the public sector in the wake of the ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

What Happened to Real Earnings in Egypt, 2008 to 2009?

Paul Cichello, Hala Abou-Ali and Daniela Marotta

Nominal earnings in Egypt were non-responsive to the increase in inflation between February 2008 and February 2009, resulting in a 12.3 (9) percent decline in average (median) real earnings among ... read more