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Publications
Working Papers

Return Migrants and the Wage Premium: Does the Legal Status of Migrants Matter?

Nelly El-Mallakh and Jackline Wahba

This paper examines the long-term impact of the legal status of overseas temporary migrants. Using unique data from Egypt, where we are able to distinguish between return migrants according to ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Do Political Connections Reduce Job Creation? Evidence from Lebanon

Ishac Diwan and Jamal Ibrahim Haidar

Using firm-level census data, we determine how politically-connected firms (PCFs) reduce job creation in Lebanon. After observing that large firms account for the bulk of net job creation, we find ... read more


Blog & News

Egypt: Youth Essay Competition

To engage youth in finding innovative solutions to Youth Employment in Egypt, the Economic Research Forum and the World Bank are pleased to announce the first Youth Essay Competition. ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Is Tunisian Trade Policy Pro-Poor?

Inmaculada Martinez-Zarzoso, Leila Baghdadi and Hendrik Kruse

The main aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of Tunisian trade policy on household welfare. We use the recently released household survey data in combination with estimated ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

The Impact of the Turkish Employment Subsidy Programs on Increasing the Level of Social Protection For Women

Binnur Balkan, Seyit Mümin Cilasun and Belgi Turan

This paper investigates the impact of the employment subsidy program implemented in 2008 by Turkish government to generate new employment opportunities for women and young men. More precisely, using a ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Social Transfers and Income Inequality in Turkey: How Important Is the Gender Dimension?

Cem Baslevent

The main purpose of this project is to carry out descriptive analyses to determine the extent to which social transfers and pension payments have an impact on income inequality and ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Rates of Return to Education in Twenty Two Arab Countries: An Update and Comparison between MENA and the Rest of the World

Zafiris Tzannatos, Ishac Diwan and Joanna Abdel Ahad

Using a unique dataset, the study fills an important empirical gap in discussions about labor outcomes in the Arab region by estimating the rates of return to education (RoRE) for ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Returns to Schooling in Egypt

Ragui Assaad, Abdurrahman Aydemir, Meltem Dayioglu Tayfur and Murat Kirdar

This paper estimates the returns to schooling in Egypt using a policy reform that reduced primary school from 6 to 5 years. As a result of this reform, which was ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Is There a Glass Ceiling in Morocco? Evidence From Matched Worker-Firm Data

Christophe Nordman and François-Charles Wolff

Abstract According to the glass ceiling hypothesis evidenced in developed countries, there exist larger gender pay gaps at the upper tail of the wage distribution. In this paper, we investigate the relevance of ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

The Fall and Rise of Earnings and Inequality in Egypt: New Evidence From the ELMPS, 2006

Mona Said

Abstract This paper investigates the distributional and structural developments of real hourly wages and monthly earnings in Egypt in the last two decades on the basis of three nation-wide labor force sample surveys ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Taking Technical Education Seriously in MENA: Determinants, Labor Market Implications and Policy Lessons

Mona Said and Fatma El-Hamidi

Abstract Our study focuses on the labor market implications of vocational and technical education in the MENA region, analyzing the case of Egypt and Morocco. We try to assess the validity of ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Trade Liberalization, Gender Segmentation, and Wage Discrimination: Evidence from Egypt

Fatma El-Hamidi

Abstract This study evaluates the impact of trade liberalization and reductions in trade barriers on gender wage inequality in Egypt by using recent Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey data (ELMPS 06) and comparing ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Access To the Labor Market and the Impact of Passage Through an Introductory Traineeship in Professional Life (SIVP1): The Example Of the Graduates Of Higher Education in Tunisia From 2004 To 2008

Imen Mouaddeb and Mohamed Kriaa

Abstract In this article, we propose to study the determinants of access to first employment of graduates of higher education in Tunisia. It also focuses on the assessment of the impact of ... read more


Publications
Policy Perspectives

Promoting Successful Transitions to Employment for Egyptian Youth

Ragui Assaad and Caroline Krafft

This Policy Perspective argues that active labor market policies, such as public employment schemes, wage subsidies, job search assistance, and skills training have not been effective in improving the quantity ... read more


Publications
Policy Briefs

Pension Reform: Securing Morocco’s Elderly

Najat El Mekkaoui

In a nutshell Morocco has one of the lowest levels of pension benefits and health insurance in MENA. The elderly in Morocco, especially older women, represent a very vulnerable group. While Morocco ... read more


Publications
Policy Briefs

Untapping Low Female Labor Force Participation In Egypt: Ending The Marriage Mismatch

Rana Hendy

In a nutshell Despite significant increases in female educational attainment, Egyptian women’s labor force participation rate remains one of the lowest in the world. This can be partially explained by the fact ... read more