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Youth and Vulnerability in the Middle East

ERF invites affiliates and non-ERF affiliates to submit proposals that enhance the understanding of youth vulnerability issues relevant to the region. The proposals may address any of the following sub-themes ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Do Political Connections Reduce Job Creation? Evidence from Lebanon

Ishac Diwan and Jamal Ibrahim Haidar

Using firm-level census data, we determine how politically-connected firms (PCFs) reduce job creation in Lebanon. After observing that large firms account for the bulk of net job creation, we find ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Why is Fertility on the Rise in Egypt? The Role of Women’s Employment Opportunities

Caroline Krafft

Can declining employment opportunities for women reverse the fertility transition? This paper presents new evidence that the demographic transition has not just stalled, but in fact reversed in Egypt. After ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Twins, Family Size, and Female Labor Force Participation in Iran

Mahdi Majbouri

Despite the rapid rise of women’s education and the fall of their fertility rates in Iran, female labor force participation remains low. This paper uses twins at first birth as ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

The Impact of the Turkish Employment Subsidy Programs on Increasing the Level of Social Protection For Women

Binnur Balkan, Seyit Mümin Cilasun and Belgi Turan

This paper investigates the impact of the employment subsidy program implemented in 2008 by Turkish government to generate new employment opportunities for women and young men. More precisely, using a ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Do Pensions Reduce the Incentive to Work? Evidence From Egypt

Mohamed El Hedi Arouri and Nguyen Viet Cuong

In this study, we investigate the impact of the receipt of contributory and social pensions on labor supply in Egypt using fixed-effects regressions and panel data from the Egypt Labor ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

The Effect of Survivors’ Benefits on Poverty and Health Indicators of Women and Children in Widowed-Mother Households: A Turkish Case Study

Oznur Ozdamar and Eleftherios Giovanis

Survivors' benefits are cash payments made by government to family members when a worker dies. His or her spouse and unmarried children are entitled to receive these cash benefits. The ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Does Microcredit Reduce Gender Gap in Employment? An Application of Decomposition Analysis to Egypt

Mohamed El Hedi Arouri and Nguyen Viet Cuong

In this paper, we examine the impact of microcredit on labor supply of men and women and subsequently investigate whether microcredit can reduce employment gap between men and women in ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Do International Remittances Affect the Performance of Labor Market in Jordan? An Empirical Investigation

Ghazi Alassaf

The current study examines the effect of international remittances on labor supply decisions of women and men left behind in Jordan. The study draws on micro-data from the Jordan Labor ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Employment Effects of Productivity Improvement and Migration of Skilled Workers

Brahim Saber

This paper studies the employment of unskilled labor effects on skilled labor productivity improvements, alternatively with and without skilled migration between two countries under the assumption that the level of ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Rates of Return to Education in Twenty Two Arab Countries: An Update and Comparison between MENA and the Rest of the World

Zafiris Tzannatos, Ishac Diwan and Joanna Abdel Ahad

Using a unique dataset, the study fills an important empirical gap in discussions about labor outcomes in the Arab region by estimating the rates of return to education (RoRE) for ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Determinants of Contribution Density of the Tunisian Pension System: A Cross Sectional Analysis

Mehdi Ben Braham and Mohamed Ali Marouani

This paper presents an analysis of pension coverage in Tunisia based on density contribution. This approach is justified by the fact that coverage rates usually used do not give a ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Informalization Dynamics and Gains: Why Want a Job Contract?

Ahmed Elsayed and Jackline Wahba

This paper examines the dynamics of informality and the extent to which informal workers (without job contracts) transit to formal employment (with job contracts) and whether this transition has changed ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Women’s participation in Labor Market in Egypt: Constraints and Opportunities

Hanan Nazier and Racha Ramadan

This research deals with female labor force participation and its determinants in the Egyptian society using the "Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey" (ELMPS) 2012.  More precisely, the paper studies the ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Southwest as the New Internal Migration Destination in Turkey

Ali Akarca and Aysit Tansel

Antalya and Muğla provinces located in southwestern Turkey have emerged as new magnets for internal migration in the country.  Socio-economic, demographic and labor market characteristics of immigrants coming to these ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Labor Market Dynamics and Youth Unemployment in the Middle East and North Africa: Evidence From Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia

Ragui Assaad and Caroline Krafft

Abstract Although it is well-established in the literature that unemployment is a labor market insertion problem in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the dynamics driving youth unemployment ... read more