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Blog & News

Live Debate on: Free Higher Education and Equity

Keeping in tune with changing economic thought on education strategies and policies, ERF and The Tunisian Economic Association are organizing a live debate on: Free Higher Education and Equity: Does ... read more


Publications
Policy Perspectives

Subsidizing Inequality: Policy and Higher Education in the Middle East and North Africa

Caroline Krafft and Halimat Alawode

This policy perspective demonstrates that attainment of higher education is notably unequal in Egypt and Tunisia, but less so in Jordan. In all three countries family socioeconomic characteristics are the ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Processes in Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia: An Examination of Pedagogy, Accountability and Perceptions of Quality

Ragui Assaad and Caroline Krafft

In this paper, we present a comparison of several dimensions of higher education processes linked to educational quality across different types of higher education institutions in three MENA countries: Egypt, ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Out of Pocket Health Expenditure and Household Budget: Evidence from Arab Countries

Reham Rizk and Hala Abou-Ali

This paper assesses the prevalence of out-of-pocket catastrophic health expenditure and pinpoints the factors associated with its risk in Egypt and Palestine. Data used in this research is obtained from ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Inequality of Opportunity in Higher Education in the Middle East and North Africa

Caroline Krafft and Halimat Alawode

Problems with inequality have been at the forefront of recent events in the Middle East and North Africa region. Yet by conventional measures such as wages and consumption, inequality is ... read more


Publications
Policy Briefs

Low Social and Political Returns to Education in the Arab World

Ishac Diwan

In a nutshell Arab societies urgently need to start looking at how to improve education systems, not just in ways to improve the marketability of individuals, but as importantly, to improve ... read more


Publications
Policy Briefs

School Based Management: An Approach to Improve Learning Outcomes in Egypt

Engi Gamal Eldin

In a nutshell Egypt has the worst basic education system worldwide. Egypt’s decentralization reforms were more rhetoric since the early 1990s. There are three institutional features that are crucial for bettering students’ performance, ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Aligning Incentives for Reforming Higher Education in Tunisa

Mongi Boughzala, Samir Ghazouani and Abdelwahab Ben Hafaiedh

This paper is about the institutional and regulatory system governing higher education in Tunisia; its focus is on autonomy and accountability and it also compares the performance of public higher ... read more


Events
Workshops/Seminars

Education in the ERF Region

Over the past few decades, most Arab countries have allocated large investments to education and many of them adopted a policy of free public education for all. As a result, ... read more


Publications
Policy Briefs

Employment and Rates of Return to Education in Arab Countries Gender and Public Sector Perspectives

Zafiris Tzannatos

In a nutshell  Two interconnected challenges for the Arab region are how to increase the low participation of women in the labor market and reduce its historic reliance on the public ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Decomposing Welfare Inequality in Egypt and Tunisia: An Oaxaca-Blinder Based Approach

Yosr Abid-Fourati, Cathal O'Donoghue and Denisa Sologon

In order to understand the main drivers of welfare inequality in Egypt and Tunisia, the present paper presents an Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition approach used to decompose differences across distributions of household ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Rates of Return to Education in Twenty Two Arab Countries: An Update and Comparison between MENA and the Rest of the World

Zafiris Tzannatos, Ishac Diwan and Joanna Abdel Ahad

Using a unique dataset, the study fills an important empirical gap in discussions about labor outcomes in the Arab region by estimating the rates of return to education (RoRE) for ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Returns to Schooling in Egypt

Ragui Assaad, Abdurrahman Aydemir, Meltem Dayioglu Tayfur and Murat Kirdar

This paper estimates the returns to schooling in Egypt using a policy reform that reduced primary school from 6 to 5 years. As a result of this reform, which was ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Identifying Sources of Inefficiency among Students of Five MENA Countries

Mohamed Ayadi and Abdelali Ben Mbarka

Instead of pushing pupils to learn by rote, the education task should be to develop their cognitive capacities. In addition to education inputs, several ‘non tangible’ variables affect education acquirements, ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

An Analysis of Education Expenditures in Turkey By Income Groups

Elif Oznur Acar, Seyit Mümin Cilasun and Burak Günalp

Abstract Using Turkish Household Budget Surveys from 2003, 2007 and 2012, this paper investigates the determinants of household education expenditures within an Engel curve framework. In particular, we estimate Tobit regressions ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Private Supplementary Tutoring in Turkey Recent Evidence on Its Various Aspects

Aysit Tansel and Fatma Bircan

Abstract This paper first describes the educational system in Turkey and the two national examinations for advancing to upper levels of schooling, which spur demand for private tutoring called “dersane” in Turkish. Second, ... read more