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Publications
Working Papers

Determinants of Household Education Expenditure in Sudan

Ebaidalla Mahjoub Ebaidalla

This paper examines the factors that influence households' expenditure on education in Sudan using the National Baseline Household Survey data (NBHS, 2009) for national, urban and rural levels. The results ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Grievances or Skills? The Effect of Education on Youth Attitudes and Political Participation in Egypt and Tunisia

Miquel Pellicer, Ragui Assaad, Caroline Krafft and Colette Salemi

There are two prominent accounts of the 2011 Arab Uprisings and the role of education in youth mobilization. The first argument focuses on grievances: this hypothesis rests on a link ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Measurement and Nature of Absolute Poverty in Least Development Countries

Massoud Karshenas

This paper provides new national accounts consistent poverty estimates for low-income countries. The paper compares the properties of the new estimates that are based on household survey means to existing ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Return Intentions of University-Educated Turkish Expatriates

Nil Demet Güngor and Aysit Tansel

This study presents research findings on the return intentions of Turkish professionals residing abroad, where the targeted group comprises individuals working at a full time job abroad and possessing a ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Does Classroom Gender Composition Affect School Dropout?

Gokce Uysal, Tuba Toru Delibasi, Bulent Anil and Duygu Guner

Measuring the gender peer effects on student achievement has recently attracted a lot of attention in the literature. Yet, the results are inconclusive. A substantial amount of research shows that ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Public Value Perspective for Gender Budgeting: Evidence from Egypt

Lobna AbdelLatif, Mohamed Ramadan and Mohamed Zaky

This paper proposes a conceptual framework that relates failure of progressing in gender equality to weakness of budgetary and political institutions. Whereas, the former drift budgetary allocation away from producing ... read more


Blog & News

Live Debate on: Free Higher Education and Equity

Keeping in tune with changing economic thought on education strategies and policies, ERF and The Tunisian Economic Association are organizing a live debate on: Free Higher Education and Equity: Does ... read more


Publications
Policy Perspectives

Subsidizing Inequality: Policy and Higher Education in the Middle East and North Africa

Caroline Krafft and Halimat Alawode

This policy perspective demonstrates that attainment of higher education is notably unequal in Egypt and Tunisia, but less so in Jordan. In all three countries family socioeconomic characteristics are the ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Processes in Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia: An Examination of Pedagogy, Accountability and Perceptions of Quality

Ragui Assaad and Caroline Krafft

In this paper, we present a comparison of several dimensions of higher education processes linked to educational quality across different types of higher education institutions in three MENA countries: Egypt, ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Out of Pocket Health Expenditure and Household Budget: Evidence from Arab Countries

Reham Rizk and Hala Abou-Ali

This paper assesses the prevalence of out-of-pocket catastrophic health expenditure and pinpoints the factors associated with its risk in Egypt and Palestine. Data used in this research is obtained from ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Inequality of Opportunity in Higher Education in the Middle East and North Africa

Caroline Krafft and Halimat Alawode

Problems with inequality have been at the forefront of recent events in the Middle East and North Africa region. Yet by conventional measures such as wages and consumption, inequality is ... read more


Publications
Policy Briefs

Low Social and Political Returns to Education in the Arab World

Ishac Diwan

In a nutshell Arab societies urgently need to start looking at how to improve education systems, not just in ways to improve the marketability of individuals, but as importantly, to improve ... read more


Publications
Policy Briefs

School Based Management: An Approach to Improve Learning Outcomes in Egypt

Engi Gamal Eldin

In a nutshell Egypt has the worst basic education system worldwide. Egypt’s decentralization reforms were more rhetoric since the early 1990s. There are three institutional features that are crucial for bettering students’ performance, ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Aligning Incentives for Reforming Higher Education in Tunisa

Mongi Boughzala, Samir Ghazouani and Abdelwahab Ben Hafaiedh

This paper is about the institutional and regulatory system governing higher education in Tunisia; its focus is on autonomy and accountability and it also compares the performance of public higher ... read more


Events
Workshops/Seminars

Education in the ERF Region

Over the past few decades, most Arab countries have allocated large investments to education and many of them adopted a policy of free public education for all. As a result, ... read more


Publications
Policy Briefs

Employment and Rates of Return to Education in Arab Countries Gender and Public Sector Perspectives

Zafiris Tzannatos

In a nutshell  Two interconnected challenges for the Arab region are how to increase the low participation of women in the labor market and reduce its historic reliance on the public ... read more