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Blog & News

Live Debate on: Free Higher Education and Equity

Keeping in tune with changing economic thought on education strategies and policies, ERF and The Tunisian Economic Association are organizing a live debate on: Free Higher Education and Equity: Does ... read more


Publications
Policy Perspectives

Subsidizing Inequality: Policy and Higher Education in the Middle East and North Africa

Caroline Krafft and Halimat Alawode

This policy perspective demonstrates that attainment of higher education is notably unequal in Egypt and Tunisia, but less so in Jordan. In all three countries family socioeconomic characteristics are the ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Out of Pocket Health Expenditures in Turkey in the Aftermath of the Reforms: Impact of Co-payments on Expenditures and Use of Health Services

Burçay Erus

In 2002 Turkey started to implement reforms in health care aiming to ease access and increase efficiency. Reforms increased insurance coverage and resulted in higher number of outpatient and inpatient ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Processes in Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia: An Examination of Pedagogy, Accountability and Perceptions of Quality

Ragui Assaad and Caroline Krafft

In this paper, we present a comparison of several dimensions of higher education processes linked to educational quality across different types of higher education institutions in three MENA countries: Egypt, ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Out of Pocket Health Expenditure and Household Budget: Evidence from Arab Countries

Reham Rizk and Hala Abou-Ali

This paper assesses the prevalence of out-of-pocket catastrophic health expenditure and pinpoints the factors associated with its risk in Egypt and Palestine. Data used in this research is obtained from ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

The Link between Health Condition Costs and Standard of Living: A Structural Equation Modelling

Oznur Ozdamar and Eleftherios Giovanis

This study employs a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to explore the health related costs using the Standard of Livings (SoL) approach in Turkey, employing data from the cross-sectional Household Budget ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Who Pays More: Public, Private, Both or None? The Effects of Health Insurance Schemes and Health Reforms on Out-of-Pocket and Catastrophic Health Expenditures in Turkey

Eleftherios Giovanis and Oznur Ozdamar

This study explores the determinants and characteristics of the out-of-pocket to capacity to pay and catastrophic health expenditures in Turkey using a detailed micro-level survey, the Household Budget Survey during ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Inequality of Opportunity in Higher Education in the Middle East and North Africa

Caroline Krafft and Halimat Alawode

Problems with inequality have been at the forefront of recent events in the Middle East and North Africa region. Yet by conventional measures such as wages and consumption, inequality is ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Energy Subsidy Reform in Egypt: The Gender – “Energy” Poverty Nexus

Fatma El-Hamidi

The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of the current energy reform policy on household expenditures along gender and regional lines. Gender analysis helps to identify constraints ... read more


Publications
Policy Briefs

Low Social and Political Returns to Education in the Arab World

Ishac Diwan

In a nutshell Arab societies urgently need to start looking at how to improve education systems, not just in ways to improve the marketability of individuals, but as importantly, to improve ... read more


Publications
Policy Briefs

School Based Management: An Approach to Improve Learning Outcomes in Egypt

Engi Gamal Eldin

In a nutshell Egypt has the worst basic education system worldwide. Egypt’s decentralization reforms were more rhetoric since the early 1990s. There are three institutional features that are crucial for bettering students’ performance, ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Aligning Incentives for Reforming Higher Education in Tunisa

Mongi Boughzala, Samir Ghazouani and Abdelwahab Ben Hafaiedh

This paper is about the institutional and regulatory system governing higher education in Tunisia; its focus is on autonomy and accountability and it also compares the performance of public higher ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

The Causal Effect of Education on Health Behaviors: Evidence From Turkey

Aysit Tansel and Deniz Karaoglan

This study provides causal effect of education on health behaviors in Turkey which is a middle income developing country.  Health Survey of the Turkish Statistical Institute for the years 2008, ... read more


Events
Workshops/Seminars

Education in the ERF Region

Over the past few decades, most Arab countries have allocated large investments to education and many of them adopted a policy of free public education for all. As a result, ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

The Role of Fiscal Policy in Fighting Poverty and Reducing Inequality in Iran: An Application of the Commitment to Equity (CEQ) Framework

Ali Enami, Nora Lustig and Alireza Taqdiri

This paper evaluates the role of fiscal system in Iran in reducing poverty and inequality. We employ the marginal contribution approach in which the effect of each component of ... read more


Publications
Policy Briefs

Tackling Poverty and Poor Health in Turkish Widowed Households State Benefits Work

Oznur Ozdamar and Eleftherios Giovanis

In a nutshell Single mother widowed households in Turkey that receive survivor benefits are more likely to improve their general health and increase household wealth than equivalent households that do not ... read more