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Publications
Policy Briefs

Reforming Rules of Origin in Greater Arab Free Trade Area for Effective Economic Integration

Bashar Hikmet Malkawi

Free trade agreements are about reducing tariffs, market access in services, protection of intellectual property rights, streamlining customs procedures, trade remedy measures, and dispute settlement mechanism. Equally important if not ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Standards and Market Power: Evidence from Tunisia

Hendrik Kruse, Inmaculada Martinez-Zarzoso and Leila Baghdadi

We develop a theoretical model and derive conditions under which firms with market power try to influence the setting of quality standards and describe the political equilibrium. We show that ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

In Search of A New Development Model For Tunisia: Assessing the Performance of the Offshore Regime

Leila Baghdadi, Sonia Ben Kheder and Hassen Arouri

The main purpose of this paper is to examine the offshore regime in Tunisia and to assess the overall effects of this export promoting strategy for the years 2002-2014. Using ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

The Currency-Plus-Commodity Basket: A Proposal for Exchange Rates in Oil-exporting Countries to Accommodate Trade Shocks Automatically

Jeffrey A. Frankel

The paper proposes an exchange rate regime for oil-exporting countries. The goal is to achieve the best of both flexible and fixed exchange rates.  The arrangement is designed to deliver ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

The Impact of the Fracking Boom on Arab Oil Producers

Lutz Kilian

This paper makes four contributions.  First, it investigates the extent to which the U.S. fracking boom has caused Arab oil exports to decline since late 2008. Second, the paper quantifies ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

The Regional Impact of Trade Liberalization on Households in Egypt, 1999-2012

Jérémie Gignoux and Akiko Suwa-Eisenmann

This paper assesses the impact of trade liberalization in Egypt by comparing regions more exposed to trade opening compared to regions that were less exposed. As each region in Egypt ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Revisiting the Impact of Trade Openness on Informal and Irregular Employment in Egypt

Mélika Ben Salem and Chahir Zaki

This paper examines the impact of trade openness on job quality through the evolution of the shares of informal and irregular employment in total employment. In fact, Egypt has undertaken ... read more


Blog & News

Updated Exports and Imports Data for Egypt

ERF is pleased to announce the dissemination of the updated data sets for Exports and Imports in Egypt ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Export Concentration and Competition: Does the Firms Type Matter?

Aya Ahmed and Chahir Zaki

Trade liberalization enhances the competition in the market as it increases the quality and the quantity of the products available to domestic buyers. This paper contributes to the literature in ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Investment Climate and Firms’ Exports in Egypt: When Politics Matter

Nora Aboushady and Chahir Zaki

The objective of this paper is to explore the nexus between exports performance and components of the investment climate. This paper contribution is twofold: first, the paper fills the gap ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Trade between Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia: Prospects and Challenges for Trilateral Trade Integration

Ebaidalla Mahjoub Ebaidalla

Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia possess potential natural and human resources, which can entail successful trade integration between the three countries. This paper investigates the performance of trilateral trade between Egypt, ... read more


Publications
Policy Briefs

Are Export Sanctions Effective?

Jamal Ibrahim Haidar

In a nutshell Different countries impose export sanctions. Whether these sanctions are effective depends on their goal. This policy brief highlights that, if the goal of export sanctions is to reduce total ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Is Tunisian Trade Policy Pro-Poor?

Inmaculada Martinez-Zarzoso, Leila Baghdadi and Hendrik Kruse

The main aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of Tunisian trade policy on household welfare. We use the recently released household survey data in combination with estimated ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Politics of Global Value Chains

Julian Hinz and Elsa Leromain

The proliferation of global value chains makes the domestic production of goods increasingly dependent on inputs from foreign sources. Political tensions between countries have an impact on trade costs as ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Is MENA Different? An Investigation of the Host Country Determinants of Chinese Outward Foreign Direct Investment

Rania Miniesy and Eman Elish

The objectives of this paper are twofold; to investigate the host country determinants of Chinese Outward Foreign Direct Investment (OFDI) in general and to examine, given these determinants, if Chinese ... read more


Publications
Policy Briefs

Boosting World Trade in Tunisia and Egypt by Cutting Non-Tariff Barriers Better Imports for Better Exports

Zouhour Karray

In a nutshell Egypt and Tunisia have embraced trade liberalization which has helped them establish a successful export-focused strategy. However, the cost of non-tariff measures (NTMs) — policy measures other than ordinary ... read more