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Publications
Working Papers

Inequality of Opportunity in Higher Education in the Middle East and North Africa

Caroline Krafft and Halimat Alawode

Problems with inequality have been at the forefront of recent events in the Middle East and North Africa region. Yet by conventional measures such as wages and consumption, inequality is ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Energy Subsidy Reform in Egypt: The Gender – “Energy” Poverty Nexus

Fatma El-Hamidi

The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of the current energy reform policy on household expenditures along gender and regional lines. Gender analysis helps to identify constraints ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Inequality of Opportunities among Tunisian Children over Time and Space

Hatem Jemmali

This paper attempts to provide additional light on the structure and dynamics of inequality of opportunity among Tunisian children during the period 2005-2010. The main steps involved in the analysis ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Alternative Simulations of Equalization Transfers in Sudan

NourEldin A. Maglad and Eisa A.M. Elshwin

Federal transfers in the Sudan are key to reducing regional disparities and addressing marginalization. While more resources have been directed to the sub-national levels since the adoption of the federal ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Inequality Decomposition in the Arab Region: Application to Jordan, Egypt, Palestine and Tunisia

Racha Ramadan, Vladimir Hlasny and Vito Intini

Economic inequality across socio-demographic groups in the Arab region is high and growing. This paper evaluates the differentials in household expenditures across rural/urban areas, female/male-headed households, non-educated/educated-headed households and non-employed/employed-headed ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Inequality of Opportunity in Wages and Consumption in Egypt

Ragui Assaad, Caroline Krafft, John Roemer and Djavad Salehi-Isfahani

We provide in this paper measures of inequality of opportunity of wages and consumption for Egypt at different points in time from 1988 to 2012. A standard way of measuring ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Inequality of Opportunity in Income and Consumption: The Middle East and North Africa Region in Comparative Perspective

Ragui Assaad, Caroline Krafft, John Roemer and Djavad Salehi-Isfahani

Social justice has been a central theme in the political turmoil affecting the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Perplexingly, standard measures of inequality are not particularly high for MENA ... read more


Publications
Policy Research Reports

The Fable of the Bees: Humanity in the 21st Century – Begin or End?

Ismail Sirageldin

The first arrival of humanity to earth was Adam and Eve. It took time for them to adjust their way of life and accept it, and eventually even change the structure of ... read more


Publications
Policy Research Reports

Equity and Inequality in the Arab Region

Sami Bibi and Mustapha Nabli

This report provides a review of empirical knowledge about income inequality in the Arab region, focusing primarily on the issues of data and measurement, and the characterization of its patterns ... read more


Publications
Policy Research Reports

Identification Des Effets Sur la Croissance et L’emploi des Mechanismes D’adjustement Microeconomique de L’offre Face a L’ouverture

Patricia Augier

Ce rapport traite de la relation ouverture - emploi dans le cas des pays méditerranéens au niveau macro, au niveau sectoriel et au niveau des firmes. Il est structuré autour ... read more


Events
Conferences

Inequality of opportunity and outcomes in the Arab Region; Parallel Session at GDN’s 14th Annual Conference

ERF organized a parallel session at the GDN’s 14th Annual Global Development Conference on Inequality, Social Protection and Inclusive Growth held in Manila, the Philippines June 19th – 21st 2013. ... read more


Events
Training

Measurements of Inequality of Opportunity and Inequality of Outcomes, 2013

As part of its capacity-building activities under the inequality theme, ERF held, for the third year in a row, a training  workshop on the Measurement of Inequality of Opportunities. It ... read more


Events
Training

Measuring Inequality of Opportunity and Inequality of Outcomes Using Household Data

This one-day workshop was conducted for some 20 Sudanese researchers. It covered techniques of measuring inequality of income, health and education status using a variety of survey data sets from ... read more


Events
Workshops/Seminars

Growth or Equity: Which Should Come First?

Keeping in tune with changing economic thought on development strategies and policies, ERF organized live debate on: Which Should Come First, Growth or Equity? The debate took place on  December ... read more


Publications
Policy Perspectives

Inequality and Polarization in the Arab World

Sami Bibi, AbdelRahmen El Lahga and Jean-Yves Duclos

This policy perspective examines why levels, changes and determinants of inequality are at the heart of the development agenda and feature prominently in the concerns of the Arab region. Among ... read more


Affiliates
Senior Associates

Paul Schultz

Areas of Interest: Labor Economics Welfare Economics Development Economics Education: Ph.D., Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1966 B.A., Economics, Swarthmore College, 1961 Experience: Professor of Economics, Yale University, 1974-present ... read more