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Publications
Working Papers

Firm and Regional Factors of Productivity: A Multilevel Analysis of Tunisian Manufacturing

Mohamed Amara and Khaled Thabet

In this paper, we use multilevel models to simultaneously analyze individual, sectoral and regional characteristics that might affect the total factor productivity of Tunisian manufacturing firms for the period 1998-2004. ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Informal Competition, Firms’ Productivity and Policy Reforms in Egypt

Nesma Ali and Boris Najman

This paper investigates the effect of the competition stemmed from informal firms on formal firms’ productivity in Egypt. Using the World Bank’s Enterprise Surveys, we update the two-step methodology of ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Technology Diffusion, International Spillovers and Human Capital in the Mediterranean Agricultural Sector

Nadia Belhaj Hassine

Abstract This paper investigates the roles of human capital and openness in the process of technology diffusion and productivity growth in the Mediterranean agricultural sector. We estimate a nonlinear productivity growth specification that ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Trade Liberalization, Agricultural Productivity and Poverty in the Mediterranean Region

Nadia Belhaj Hassine and Magda Kandil

Abstract A widely held view in the economic literature is that productivity growth is an important pathway through which trade liberalization affects the poor. This paper explores the links between trade openness, agricultural ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Is Corruption “Greasing” Or “Sanding” The Wheels of Innovation of Firms in MENA?

Tamer Taha

In a region with a tradition and abundance of rent-seeking behavior, innovation in MENA countries is key for growth and development. However many inherited institutional barriers are still locking the ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Trade and Access to Finance of SMEs: Is There A Nexus?

Hala El-Said, Mahmoud Al-Said and Chahir Zaki

Limited resources and barriers to entry are critically higher for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) than for large companies. One of the reasons explaining why the resources of SMEs are ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

MSEs Informality and Productivity: Evidence From Egypt

Hala Abou-Ali and Reham Rizk

This paper assesses the impact of informality on household enterprise performance in terms of productivity and size of output. Furthermore, it pinpoints informality determinants with respect to different types of ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Which Factors Determine the Upgrading of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)? Evidence Egypt, India and the Philippines

Aimée Hampel-Milagrosa, Markus Loewe and Caroline Reeg

Many low and middle-income countries suffer from a lack of medium-sized companies, which tend to be the main creators of higher income employment, motors of innovation and economic diversification. The ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Growing Without Changing: A Tale of Egypt’s Weak Productivity Growth

Hanan Morsy, Antoine Levy and Clara Sanchez

This paper aims to identify the reasons why economic growth in Egypt, although comparable to its peers, failed to significantly reduce unemployment, lower poverty levels or raise overall productivity. We ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Arab Passengers’ Airlines Framework and Performance: A Cross-Countries Analysis

Khalid Sekkat

The present paper summarizes the findings of four country studies (Jordan, Egypt, Morocco and United Arab Emirates; UAE), which investigated the relationship between the current passengers’ airlines framework and the ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

On Informality and Productivity of Micro and Small Enterprises: Evidence from MENA Countries

Rana Hendy and Chahir Zaki

The objective of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to examine the impact of informality on productivity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) in order to identify ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Urban Economies: A Comparative Study of Egypt and Turkey at the Province Level

Fatma El-Hamidi and Cem Baslevent

This paper examines how businesses operating in areas with differing rates of urbanization differ from each other with regard to firm characteristics such as firm size and the sector of ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

The Effect of Mergers and Acquisitions on Bank Efficiency: Evidence from Bank Consolidation in Egypt

Malak Reda

The paper examines the impact of mergers and acquisitions on the efficiency and profitability of Egyptian banks by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to measure managerial efficiency and by traditional ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

Competitiveness in Turkish Banking: 2002-2011

Nurhan Davutyan and Canan Yildirim

Using a novel approach, we derive “shadow unrealized profit scores” as well as “shadow input-output prices” for each year and bank in the Turkish banking sector from 2002 to 2011. ... read more


Publications
Working Papers

What Determines the Access to Finance of SMEs? Evidence from the Egyptian Case

Hala El-Said, Mahmoud Al-Said and Chahir Zaki

Financial services seem to be underutilized by small and medium enterprises (SMEs); only 50 percent deal with banks and benefit from an improved access to finance. In addition, these firms ... read more